Bern was founded in 1191 by order of Duke Berthold V Zaringen. At first, its houses were built of oak, but in 1405, when the fire destroyed the wooden buildings, the city began to reborn under a stone aspect. The old city is declared by UNESCO as an architectural monument of world culture. Bern became the capital of the Swiss Confederation in 1848. Its name comes from the word “bear” (Baer). This is due to an old legend. It is said that Duke Berthold, hunting in the local forests, killed the bear. This hunting trophy gave the name of the city and became its symbol.
Almost all the buildings in the historic center of Bern were built between the sixteenth and seventeenth century and its central part was almost unchanged; Like a few centuries ago, gray-green houses, towers, once superimposed on the ramparts, narrow streets. At each step you can see the charming fountains. They are made in the form of stone bowls, each with a column in the middle, whose summit is crowned with painted figures. They were created by the sculptor Gaes Ging (16th century), then the fountains have a purely practical importance. When setting up tram lines in the city, the Bernese unanimously rebelled against moving the fountains in the middle of the sidewalk to another place. The Swiss authorities have been forced to surrender. In these narrow streets, trams run around each fountain, but the residents are very satisfied.
Kramgas – one of the most beautiful streets of Bern, its Baroque facades are harmoniously combined with fountains decorated with streamers. The Barrenplatz, in the center of the Old Town, is home to the old prison tower – the western gateway to the old Bern. And, of course, in Bern, it is impossible to pass through the bell tower of Zytgloggegturm, built in the twelfth century, whose eastern part is adorned with the famous Karl Brunner watch.
Every year, on the fourth Sunday of November, any tourist who chooses to go to Switzerland can see how completely transformed Bern is. On this day, the traditional onion fair, Tsibelemerit, opens in the Swiss capital. On this day, the shopping arcade is strewn with clusters of bow woven in braids. Here you can buy jam, pickles for the winter, dried mushrooms, nuts and local handicrafts.